Most Bosch Spark Plugs are factory pre-gapped for popular vehicle applications.
Gaps should never by adjusted on Platinum+4 or Platinum+2. Bosch Platinum+4 and Platinum+2 have factory pre-set gaps, and should never be gapped by the installer.
Bosch Platinum and Super Spark Plugs also have factory-set gaps. For most plugs, the setting is shown on the plug package. These gaps are correct for the most popular applications of these plugs. There are applications, however, for which the gap setting has to be adjusted according to the vehicle manufacturer’s specifications. To avoid damage to a spark plug in the process of adjusting the gap, it is important to follow these guidelines:
Consumers are sometimes told by an automobile dealer’s service writer or mechanic that a brand of replacement spark plug cannot be used in the consumer’s vehicle during the warranty period. The claim is made that use of the brand will “void the warranty”, with the statement or implication that only the original equipment brand of spark plugs may be used. This, of course, tends to cast doubt on the quality of the replacement spark plug. That claim is not true. Under the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act and general principles of the Federal Trade Commission Act, a manufacturer may not require the use of any brand of spark plug (or any other article) unless the manufacturer provides the item free of charge under the terms of the warranty.
So, if the consumer is told that only the original equipment spark plug will not void the warranty, they should request that the OE spark plug be provided free of charge. If they are charged for the spark plug, the manufacturer or dealer is in violation of the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act.
To validate the improved performance of surface air gap plugs with a pure platinum core and multiple ground electrodes, extensive testing was conducted in the laboratory and in the field:
Bosch guarantees that you will feel improved performance in your vehicle when using a spark plug of the Bosch Platinum Series (Platinum+4, Platinum2, and Platinum). However, if you do not experience quicker starts, smoother acceleration, and improved fuel efficiency, you can return the plugs with a dated sales receipt and Bosch will refund the purchase price of the spark plugs.
Multi Ground - Plugs with multiple ground electrodes are called multi ground. These plugs also use surface gap spark patterns and the multiple ground electrodes increase service life.
Surface Gap - Surface gap technology is when the ground electrode is to the side of the center electrode. There can be no ground electrode (racing applications), multiple ground electrodes (PT+4 and PT2), or a single ground electrode. These spark plugs have improved efficiency and a higher probability of igniting a lean air/fuel mixture.
Resistor- Many spark plugs have a special conductive glass seal between the center electrode and the terminal stud. This seal acts as a resistor in the plug which reduces the transmission of pulses of energy to the ignition cables. These pulses can cause Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) with electrical components in the car. For some newer cars, resistor plugs are required for effective communication between the plugs and the electronic ignition.
Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) - When the spark plug creates a spark, a high frequency burst of energy is created. If this energy was to travel through the ignition wires, it could cause interference with other sensitive electronic devices, such as the radio or electronic control units. The resistor in the spark plug reduces this energy before it causes interference with other electrical components.
Fouling - Fouling occurs when a plug becomes contaminated with fuel, oil, or other contaminates that prevent the plug from generating a spark. Most plugs today are designed to reduce fouling and become self-cleaning when they reach 500 degrees Celsius. However, short trips, low speed driving, improper spark plug heat range (too cold), improper timing, or an oil leak in the combustion chamber can cause a spark plug to become fouled.
Bridging - Over time, contaminants can build on the surface of the spark plug if it does not reach self-cleaning temperature often. These buildups can grow between the electrodes until they are actually connected by a bridge of contaminants. This will often cause misfire.
Flashover- Occurs when the spark does not jump between the electrodes within the combustion chamber, but instead jumps between the metal shell and the terminal on top of the plug. This will always cause a misfire since the air/fuel mixture will not be ignited. Bosch spark plugs have a ribbed insulator to prevent flashover.
Quenching- The purpose of a spark plug is to introduce enough heat into the combustion chamber to initiate a smooth burn of the air/fuel mixture. Quenching occurs when that heat generated by the spark is reabsorbed back into the ground electrode, the center electrode, and the ceramic insulation. To reduce quenching and ensure an efficient transfer of heat, Bosch Platinum+4 and Platinum2 spark plugs use surface gap technologies.
There are several signs that will tell you it’s time to change your filter:
NO. There are five fundamentally different types of oxygen sensors: unheated thimble, heated thimble, planar, wide-band and titania. Within each sensor type, sensors vary in the design of the ceramic element, heater element and protection tube design, all of which affect sensor operation.
Unheated Thimble: This was the first oxygen sensor design and Bosch has been producing them since 1976. These sensors either have one wire or two (for purposes of grounding), since they do not require power for a heater element. They use a zirconia ceramic element to generate a voltage in a rich (insufficient oxygen) gas environment. They can take several minutes to reach operating temperatures of 625 degrees Fahrenheit after a cold start, however this varies with application as the location of the sensor determines the rate at which it heats.
Heated Thimble: These sensors were introduced by Bosch in 1982 and function in the same manner as the unheated thimble, however inside the thimble is a special heating element that brings the sensor up to operating temperature in about 30-60 seconds. The additional wires to power the heater- typically a total of 3-4 wires (dependent on grounding scenario) can identify these sensors.
Planar: This sensor was introduced by Bosch in 1997 and also uses the zirconia ceramic sensing technology, but placed in a more compact thin flat shape (hence the name) instead of a thimble or conical shape. This allows the sensor to be smaller and lighter. They also require less electrical power as the heater is integrated into the smaller sensing element. By model year 2004, planar oxygen sensors are expected to account for over 30% of all new oxygen sensor applications and by 2007 for over 50% of new oxygen sensors. These sensors also have only four wires.
Wideband: This is the newest design of oxygen sensor and it offers the increased accuracy needed to meet the latest emissions requirements. Unlike all the other types of oxygen sensors, the wide-band sensor can actually measure the air/fuel ratio from 11:1 (excess fuel condition) all the way to straight air (no fuel)! (The ideal air/fuel ratio is 14.7/1.) This improved measurement allows the engine control system to measure the actual air/fuel ratio and eliminates the switching between lean and rich associated with a traditional type of oxygen sensor. These sensors use a planar zirconia ceramic element, so that they heat up much faster than other types of sensors- reducing cold start emissions. These sensors can be identified with having five or more wires. In addition, these sensors are used with the newly developed gasoline direct injection engines. Direct injection engines can use stratified charges, which produce a very lean mixture in the combustion chamber, and these sensors must be used because of their ability to measure from very lean to very rich accurately.
Titania: These sensors use a different type of oxygen sensing technology and instead of generating a voltage signal that changes with the air/fuel ratio, the sensor’s resistance changes. These sensors are used on less than 0.5% of all oxygen sensor equipped vehicles.
Unfortunately, the symptoms of a slow or even a dead sensor are not always obvious to the vehicle owner unless the vehicle fails an emissions test, a decline in fuel economy is noticed, or if driveability problems occur. Over time, exhaust contaminants accumulate on the sensing element reducing the sensor's ability to respond quickly to changes in air/fuel mixture and slowly the sensor becomes inoperable. Some symptoms of failed oxygen sensors are:
Unlike gasoline engines which use a spark plug to ignite an air/fuel mixture, diesel engines rely on the heat of highly-compressed air to ignite a precise amount of fuel to initiate combustion. Heating the air to a minimum starting temperature of 850°C is critical for diesel engine start-up.
In low temperatures, factors such as cold intake air and cold cylinder walls hinder the attainment of the necessary starting temperature. In these situations, glow plugs function as an additional heat source to bring the intake air up to the temperature necessary to initiate the combustion cycle.
There are two basic types of diesel combustion cycles:
1. Nozzle holder with injection nozzle
2. Sheathed-element glow plug
3. Combustion chamber
1. Nozzle holder with injection nozzle
2. Sheathed-element glow plug
4. Combustion chamber
Other causes of glow plug failure include:
Damage like this will most likely result in engine failure. Removing a glow plug with a distended or broken tip may require engine head removal — a time-consuming and costly repair.
The following signs most likely indicate that it’s time to change a vehicle’s glow plugs. If any of these conditions exist, be sure to check the vehicle’s glow plugs and if necessary, replace them with a new set of Bosch Glow Plugs.
Yes! Bosch units are specifically engineered and built to deliver the same or better starting and charging power as the original equipment units they replace. Every component used to build Bosch Starters and Alternators is subject to the same rigorous Bosch Original Equipment quality standards. For example:
Digitally tested rotor______________________ Ensures up to 20% increased performance in maintaining optimal battery charge
Superior voltage regulator circuit design______ Maintains optimal voltages during all conditions to maximize the charging of the battery
Yes! Bosch Premium Starters and Alternators are manufactured especially for extremes of heat, cold, and high demand. Each unit is built to last using the highest quality materials and the most technologically advanced processes, including:
Longer lasting bearings are constructed using the latest advances_______Provides up to a 30% increased life over conventional bearings
in precision grinding, polishing, and lubrication technologies
Rigid welded construction for critical electrical connections_______Ensures durability and reliability even in the hottest conditions _____________________________________________________________versus soldered construction
New insulation________________________________________________Prevents damage due to temperature extremes, vibration, and _____________________________________________________________chemical corrosion
All new long-life self-lubed brushes and corrosion-resistant brush springs_Increased durability under the toughest conditions
Any time a wire exhibits physical damage either to the wire or the boots, such as a cut, grooves or marks from chafing or scorch marks from burning, the wire should be replaced as preventative maintenance.
Additionally, some wires fail from the inside, due to a breakdown of their insulation materials. Wires should always be inspected and tested whenever a rough or erratic idle is present, poor acceleration is noticed, a decrease in fuel mileage is experienced or a vehicle fails an emissions test due to high hydrocarbon emissions or cylinder misfire fault code.
Wires should be replaced if their resistance exceeds the OEM specification for their specific application. Wires should always be replaced as a set due to the unpredictablility of the internal condition of each individual wire.
Improperly designed wire sets can cause dangerous problems including interference with the throttle cable linkage, causing the gas pedal to stay open, or resting on the exhaust manifold, which would cause the wire to burn. In addition, if wire sets are not installed correctly problems can occur. When installing wire sets, make sure the connection between the spark plug and the cap is secure to avoid ignition problems.
Bosch duplicates the outside diameter of the original equipment wire for safe and secure fit in factory retainers and looms. Bosch closely follows the length of the original equipment for safe routing. Bosch always uses snug fitting original equipment style boots and connectors to ensure proper fit, function, and appearance while providing extreme durability and long life. All Bosch boots and connectors meet or exceed the high temperature requirements of the original equipment set.
MAG core wire sets emply a sprial wound, magnetic firing core design. The Bosch MAG core is upgraded to premium by replacing standard metallic wire with a tightly wound low resistance stainless steel wire.
The benefits of the Bosch MAG core includes a hotter, more powerful and longer* spark resulting in optimum engine performance while reducing the chance for misfire and eliminating radio frequency static. There is no better core available.
That's why Original Equipment Manufacturers continue to switch from conventional core construction to MAG core Bosch wire sets for all domestic and Asian cars, trucks, and SUVs are constructed using our premium MAG core technology.
*Laboratory testing has shown 16% longer spark duration over standard suppression construction.
Spark plug wires are designed to carry the electrical voltage from the ignition system to the spark plug. They are designed to have very low resistance so the maximum amount of the energy is transferred. This transfer of energy can be interrrupted by several factors: