2003 Volvo S40 Performance Suspension

    • KW Suspensions®V1 Inox-Line Coilover Lowering Kit
      $2,162.49$1,729.99
      (0)
      Volvo S40 Base 2003, V1 Inox-Line Coilover Lowering Kit with 0.8"-2.1" Front and Rear Body Drop by KW Suspensions®. Threaded Struts Adjust Front and Rear Height. Variation 1 Inox coilovers take the worry and guesswork out of...
      Set of 4 coilovers that achieve the best balance between sport handling, comfort, and safetyDamper settings have been optimally pre-set by KW Engineers and are not adjustable
      # 11989853
    • KSport®0.5"-2.5" x 0.5"-2.5" Kontrol Pro Coilover Kit
      $1,322.50$1,058.00
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Kontrol Pro Coilover Kit with 0.5"-2.5" Front and Rear Body Drop by KSport®. Spring Rate: 420 lb/in (Front), 297 lb/in (Rear). Upper Mount: Pillowball (Front), Aluminum (Rear). This is a set of 4 coilovers designed...
      Set of 4 coilovers designed with both road racing and comfortable street driving in mindLower mounts allow ride height drops without compromising suspension travel
      # 14873550
    • KSport®Airtech Air Suspension System
      $2,493.75from $1,995.00
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Airtech Air Suspension System by KSport®. Upper Mount: Pillowball (Front), Aluminum (Rear). KSport offers air suspension kits ranging from no frills with manual paddle controls up through full digital control of...
      All air suspension kits include 4 air springs with height adjustability and 36 levels of damping adjustmentBasic kit features 1 Viair 380C air compressor, while Deluxe and above kits feature 2 Viair 380C air compressors
      # 14871009
    • KONI®Rear Sport Shock
      $196.00$156.80
      (0)
      Volvo S40 without Self Leveling Suspension 2003, Rear Sport Shock by KONI®, 1 per Pack. Design: Twin-Tube with Low Pressure Gas. Adjustment Feature: Standard Adjustable. Body Style: Standard. KONI’s sport shocks are designed for...
      These sport shocks are externally adjustable by means of a knob and need to be disassembled from the carDamping forces fine-tuning to personal driving style and road conditions matter of seconds
      # 16478452
    • KW Suspensions®Hydraulic Individual Lift System
      $4,499.99from $3,599.99
      (0)
      Universal Hydraulic Individual Lift System by KW Suspensions®. This is a set of 4 hydraulic cylinder units that mount between the spring perch and spring on KW coilovers. These expand to provide 1.8 inches of front and rear lift...
      Hydraulic lift cylinders (located on the coilover body between spring perch and spring) expand to provide 1.8 inches of front and rear vehicle liftAvailable in 4-wheel front and rear, or front-only applications
      # 11472927
    • Energy Suspension®Shock Reservoir Isolator
      $7.68from $6.14
      (0)
      Universal Shock Reservoir Isolator by Energy Suspension®. This is a set of polyurethane vibration dampeners that insert between externally mounted shock absorber fluid reservoirs and shocks for off-road applications. Resilient...
      Set of polyurethane vibration dampeners that insert between externally mounted shock absorber reservoirs and shocks for off-road applicationsHigh-density polyurethane provides a superior cushioning effect and resists degrading, drying up, and crumbling the way rubber mounts can
      # 10780487
    • Daystar®Shock and Steering Stabilizer Armor
      $18.74from $14.99
      (0)
      Universal Shock and Steering Stabilizer Armor by Daystar®. Surround and protect your shock absorbers, steering stabilizers, or any other tubular underbody pieces from damage and grime discoloration with this set of two polyurethane...
      Set of two snap on cover pieces designed to protect front or rear shocks from dents and damageCan also be used to effectively protect steering stabilizers
      # 4301575
    • Daystar®Custom Shock Boot
      $3.41from $2.73
      (0)
      Universal Custom Shock Boot by Daystar®. When it comes to superior suspension performance, Daystar offers protective polyurethane sleeve boots that surround and protect shock absorbers, driveshaft joints, axle joints, and steering...
      Replacement polyurethane boots are available for multiple driveshaft and shock absorber configurationsAvailable in a variety of colors
      # 4301586
    • Rugged Ridge®Shock Boot
      $8.74$6.99
      (1)
      Universal Shock Boot by Rugged Ridge®. The Jeep is the original high performance off-road machine, built to perform under the most grueling conditions. But even though it's a capable machine right from the factory, performance...
      Engineered and trail tested exclusively for JeepsOver 3000 products
      # 6894402
    • Hotchkis®Billet Sway Bar Brackets
      $100.94from $80.75
      (0)
      Universal Billet Sway Bar Brackets by Hotchkis®. This is a set of two heavy-duty aluminum sway bar mounting brackets designed to provide a higher level of strength with more sophisticated brushed metal looks to match. Anodized...
      Set of two heavy-duty aluminum sway bar mounting brackets7075 grade aluminum construction provides an effective upgrade for applications that require the highest level of strength
      # 4665872
    • Energy Suspension®Shock Eye Bushings
      $2.88from $2.30
      (0)
      Universal Shock Eye Bushings by Energy Suspension®. Energy Suspension offers replacement round polyurethane bushings that mount within the open, circular ends of shock absorbers. No matter what design your shock absorber ends have,...
      Choose sets for bayonet end style, half- and full-sized bushings for hourglass style, straight eye, and large race sizesHigh-density polyurethane provides a superior cushioning effect and resists degrading, drying up, and crumbling the way rubber mounts can
      # 10780517
    • Energy Suspension®Shock/Strut Bump Stop Set
      $4.34from $3.47
      (0)
      Universal Shock/Strut Bump Stop Set by Energy Suspension®. This is a set of 2 polyurethane bump stops designed for McPherson strut style shock absorbers which prevent damage when the end of suspension travel is reached. Resilient...
      Set of 2 polyurethane bump stops designed for McPherson strut style shock absorbersPrevent metal-on-metal contact and damage when the end of suspension travel is reached
      # 10780758
    • Energy Suspension® Sway Bar Bushing Set
      $18.16from $14.53
      (1)
      Universal Sway Bar Bushing Set by Energy Suspension®. This is a set of replacement polyurethane bushings designed to dampen vibrations where the center section of the sway bar attaches to your vehicle’s frame. Resilient...
      Set of 2 replacement polyurethane bushings designed to dampen vibrations where the middle section of the sway bar attaches to your vehicle’s frameKit provides parts for both left and right mid-section sway mounts
      # 10780556
    • Energy Suspension®End Link Bushing Set
      $7.04from $5.63
      (0)
      Universal End Link Bushing Set by Energy Suspension®. This is a set of replacement polyurethane grommets designed to dampen vibrations on end link rod mounting points. Resilient polyurethane offers greater resistance to...
      Set of replacement polyurethane grommets designed to dampen vibrations on end link rod mounting pointsGrommet sets are available with or without zinc-coated steel washers
      # 10780770
    • Energy Suspension®Tie Rod Dust Boots
      $24.01from $19.21
      (0)
      Tie Rod Dust Boots by Energy Suspension®. Upgrade the protection for your steering system tie rods with replacement boots made from flexible and highly durable polyurethane. Vehicle manufacturers don’t always offer replacement...
      Set of replacement polyurethane protective dust boots for your vehicle’s front steering tie rodsBoots are sold in multiple package amount, sizes, and colors
      # 10780670
    • Energy Suspension®Polyurethane Pad Set
      $12.50from $10.00
      (0)
      Universal Polyurethane Pad Set by Energy Suspension®. Upgrade and replace degraded rubber pads above and below leaf spring ends with polyurethane ones from Energy Suspension. Resilient polyurethane construction offers greater...
      Set of 8 polyurethane pads for two leaf spring assembliesPads mount above and below both leaf spring ends to dampen vibration and squeaks
      # 10780498
    • Daystar®Sway Bar Bushing and Bracket
      $26.25from $21.00
      (0)
      Universal Sway Bar Bushing and Bracket by Daystar®. Without a doubt the most significant handling upgrade that money can buy, Daystar's Sway Bar Bushings provide significant performance increases you can feel. Aftermarket...
      Sway Bar BushingSpecially Formulated Polyurethane Materials
      # 4301679
    • Daystar®Shock and End Link Bushings
      $3.89from $3.11
      (0)
      Universal Shock and End Link Bushings by Daystar®. This is a set of replacement polyurethane bushings designed for use in the pivot points of end link rods, and also within the open, circular ends of some shock absorbers....
      Set of 2 replacement polyurethane bushings that meet or exceed OEM levels of vibration dampening refinement and strengthDesigned in a shape that can be used inside some end links and shock absorber mounting eyes
      # 4303979
    • Lakewood®Ladder Bar Bushings
      $35.63$28.50
      (0)
      Universal Ladder Bar Bushings by Lakewood®, Set of 4. When you need to get reliable components to bring your vehicle's suspension or chassis back to life, there's no better place to get them than right here. Whether you need bell...
      Engineered to exceed OEM quality standardsImproves your vehicle's handling
      # 12189492
    • Lakewood®Traction Bar Bushings
      $34.93$27.94
      (0)
      Universal Traction Bar Bushings by Lakewood®, Set of 4. Replacement for PN 20140, 21700, 21900, 21901, 20150, 20151, 20152. When you need to get reliable components to bring your vehicle's suspension or chassis back to life,...
      Engineered to exceed OEM quality standardsImproves your vehicle's handling
      # 12191888
    • Daystar®Bump Stops
      $9.15from $7.32
      (2)
      Universal Bump Stops by Daystar®. Bump Stops are a critical part of your vehicle's suspension - they prevent damaging over-compression and eliminate harsh bottoming of the suspension. Daystar's Bump Stops are designed and tested...
      High Impact Polyurethane provide high levels of cushioning strength and will function without degrading or cracking in extreme temperaturesIncreased Strength Compared to Stock Rubber Bump Stops
      # 4303921
    • Lakewood®Traction Bar Snubbers
      $24.45from $19.56
      (0)
      Universal Traction Bar Snubbers by Lakewood®, Set of 2. When you need to get reliable components to bring your vehicle's suspension or chassis back to life, there's no better place to get them than right here. Whether you need bell...
      Engineered to exceed OEM quality standardsImproves your vehicle's handling
      # 12203648
    • Weapon-R®Hellaflush Wheel Spacer Kit
      $23.75from $19.00
      (1)
      Universal Hellaflush Wheel Spacer Kit by Weapon-R®. Get the look you want with your aftermarket wheels with this Wheel Spacer kit.
      # 290747
    • Mr. Gasket®Wheel Spacers
      $27.25from $21.80
      (0)
      Universal Wheel Spacers by Mr. Gasket®. Dress up your wheel from Mr. Gasket. Constructed from die-cast aluminum, wheel spacers provide the necessary clearance for custom wheel applications.
      Triple-chrome platingStamped steel fits like original cover
      # 12129869
    • Hotchkis® Zerk Fitting Caps
      $8.40$6.72
      (1)
      Universal Zerk Fitting Caps by Hotchkis®. Set of 25 plastic protective caps. Proper lubrication of polyurethane is critical to eliminate squeaking. By utilizing a waterproof, high temperature, high pressure, and highly adhesive...
      Set of 25 plastic protective caps designed to surround and cover Hotchkis metal grease nozzles (zerk fittings)Prevents contaminants and grit from hardening on the outside of your grease nozzle
      # 5104381
    • Air Lift®Air Tanks
      $83.58from $66.86
      (0)
      Universal Air Tanks by Air Lift®. Enhance the inflation speed and performance of your air springs with a reserve of air compressed to 150 psi stored in any of Air Lift’s reinforced steel Air Tanks. Available in sizes from 2...
      Crafted from high-strength, reinforced traditional steelEnsure a reserve of compressed air for springs to inflate instantly, at a faster rate
      # 7611053
    • Air Lift®12 Volt Air Compressors
      $223.69from $178.95
      (0)
      Universal 12 Volt Air Compressors by Air Lift®. Air Lift offers 2-stage, 12-volt air compressors for all needs and budgets. Choose smaller ones for basic load leveling needs, or choose a set of two paired compressors to fill large...
      Dual Viair 450C, 400C, 380C, and 480C kits come with an air line extension and separate brackets for remote mountingAll compressors operate on standard 12-volt automotive electrical systems
      # 7611197
    • Air Lift®Air Management Systems
      $968.75from $775.00
      (0)
      Universal Air Management Systems by Air Lift®. Air Lift offers a wide variety of complete kits with everything needed to set up an air suspension system. Springs are not included, however these systems will work with your choice of...
      Kits contain air compressor(s), reserve tank, gauges, control switches, and all related hardware and air lines needed for installationAir springs are not included in Air Management System kits
      # 7658376
    • MOOG®Front Lower Strut Mount Alignment Camber Bolt Kit
      $19.38from $15.50
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Front Lower Strut Mount Alignment Camber Bolt Kit by MOOG®. Upgrade your vehicle to MOOG and experience a safe and comfortable ride. The parts are made tough to ensure reliable operation even under extreme...
      Designed to make steering and suspension repairs easyDirect fit
      # 21705604
    • Lesjofors®Coil Spring
      $116.74from $93.39
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Coil Spring by Lesjofors®. Coil Springs should always be replaced in pairs only, both sides at the same time. Does your luxury car ride like an old buckboard wagon? Is your pickup still bouncing long after the bump?...
      # 7858476
    • MOOG®Rear Upper Coil Spring Insulator
      $15.03$12.02
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Rear Upper Coil Spring Insulator by MOOG®. Upgrade your vehicle to MOOG and experience a safe and comfortable ride. The parts are made tough to ensure reliable operation even under extreme conditions. Thanks to the...
      Designed to make steering and suspension repairs easyDirect fit
      # 21645192
    • Apa/Uro Parts®Control Arm Bushing
      $23.58from $18.86
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Control Arm Bushing by APA/URO Parts®. Does your luxury car ride like an old buckboard wagon? Is your pickup still bouncing long after the bump? If so your suspension is in need of repair, but before you waste your...
      # 7988488
    • Dorman®Lateral Link
      $54.01$43.21
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Lateral Link by Dorman®, 1 per Pack. Without Ball Joint. Material: Steel. With Bushings. Restore a smooth ride, directional stability, and agile handling with Dorman’s suspension components. Their tough rubber...
      Direct replacement for a trouble-free installationBushings included for a complete installation, saving time and labor (where applicable)
      # 33174467
    • Dorman®Control Arm
      $40.16from $32.13
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Control Arm by Dorman®, 1 per Pack. If you are searching for a quality control arm, this product is the way to go. Featuring a sturdy construction and quality tested for trouble-free performance, the control arm...
      Direct OEM replacementAllows the wheels to lift and descend when hitting bumps or other road imperfections
      # 33174469
    • Febi®Control Arm Bushing
      $14.43$11.54
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Control Arm Bushing by Febi®. Position: Front Lower Inner Front. Does your luxury car ride like an old buckboard wagon? Is your pickup still bouncing long after the bump? If so your suspension is in need of repair,...
      # 8391824
    • Febi®Control Arm
      $145.25from $116.20
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Control Arm by Febi®. w/ B-Joint & Bushings. Does your luxury car ride like an old buckboard wagon? Is your pickup still bouncing long after the bump? If so your suspension is in need of repair, but before you waste...
      # 8414164
    • Genuine®Exhaust Stud
      $169.83$135.86
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Exhaust Stud by Genuine®. Is your car noisier these days? Can you smell exhaust fumes in the cabin? Exhaust system repairs should not be put off, both for safety and legal reasons, but before you waste your time and...
      # 8897858
    • Lemfoerder®Control Arm
      $56.70from $45.36
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Control Arm by Lemfoerder®. Does your luxury car ride like an old buckboard wagon? Is your pickup still bouncing long after the bump? If so your suspension is in need of repair, but before you waste your time and...
      # 8522182
    • MOOG®Front Lower Control Arm Bushing
      $14.35$11.48
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Front Lower Control Arm Bushing by MOOG®. Replace your worn or damaged bushings with stronger and longer-lasting bushings from MOOG that effectively absorb substantial loads and are less prone to splitting or...
      Restore handling and enable proper alignmentReduce noise
      # 21645773
    • MOOG®R-Series™ Control Arm
      $30.50from $24.40
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, R-Series™ Control Arm by MOOG®. Direct replacement control arms by MOOG are designed to solve steering and suspension problems in nothing flat. Most come with MOOG problem solver ball joints and premium bushings...
      Restores chassis performanceApplication specific OE geometry ensures perfect fit and function
      # 38441879
    • Professional Parts Sweden®Control Arm
      $50.58$40.46
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Control Arm by Professional Parts Sweden®. Position: Rear Lower Front. Does your luxury car ride like an old buckboard wagon? Is your pickup still bouncing long after the bump? If so your suspension is in need of...
      # 7685295
    • Scan-Tech®Control Arm
      $82.28$65.82
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Control Arm by Scan-Tech®. Position: Rear Upper. Does your luxury car ride like an old buckboard wagon? Is your pickup still bouncing long after the bump? If so your suspension is in need of repair, but before you...
      # 7901010
    • Scan-Tech®Trailing Arm Bushing
      $53.41$42.73
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Trailing Arm Bushing by Scan-Tech®. NLA 1/12. Note: Rear Suspension - Trailing Arm to Chassis. Does your luxury car ride like an old buckboard wagon? Is your pickup still bouncing long after the bump? If so your...
      # 7903362
    • Mevotech®Control Arm
      $40.09from $32.07
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Control Arm by Mevotech®. Designed to increase friction amount between the tire and road surface for an effective steering ability and better handling, this control arm provides firm connection point between the...
      Eliminates uneven steering, squeaking noise, and excessive tire wearAllocates vehicle body weight to the tire for vehicle stability and alignment
      # 19197281
    • Beck Arnley®Control Arm
      $49.70from $39.76
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Control Arm by Beck Arnley®. For one hundred years, Beck/Arnley has been providing premium OE quality parts for vehicles. Beginning with motorcycle parts in 1914 and transitioning to import vehicles in the 1950’s,...
      OE quality products from top original equipmentTop quality materials
      # 35877436
    • Monroe®Strut-Mate™ Strut Mounting Kit
      $20.39from $16.31
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Strut-Mate™ Strut Mounting Kit by Monroe®. 1 per Pack. Worn strut mounts can adversely affect your vehicles handling, and should always be replaced when new struts are installed as a part of a complete repair....
      Ensures complete repair of all worn strut componentsDirect fit replacement
      # 17921511
    • Monroe®OESpectrum™ Struts
      $69.73from $55.78
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, OESpectrum™ Struts by Monroe®. 1 per Pack. These shocks and struts are engineered for foreign nameplate vehicles to enhance the performance of their suspension systems. Monroe OESpectrum shocks utilize OE valving...
      Provide unprecedented handling precision and controlNitrogen gas charged
      # 17928594
    • Bilstein®B4 Series Replacement Shocks
      $82.01from $65.61
      (0)
      Volvo S40 Base 2003, B4 Series Replacement Shocks by Bilstein®, 1 per Pack. Black Paint. Design: Twin-Tube. Without Boot. BILSTEIN has a legendary reputation for providing original equipment components to many of the world’s...
      Constant damping characteristics under any loadConsistent performance and handling give the vehicle a new car feel every time
      # 17168597
    • KYB®Rear Strut Mounting Kit
      $17.73$14.18
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Rear Suspension Strut Mounting Kit by KYB®, 1 per Pack. When replacing struts, it's also a great idea to replace strut mounts too. They optimize suspension performance by providing a smooth steering response and...
      On front struts, the mount includes a bearing that acts as a pivot for the steering mechanism, providing a smooth steering responseEnables accurate wheel alignment
      # 17798767
    • KYB®Excel-G™ Strut Assembly
      $74.19from $59.35
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Excel-G™ Suspension Strut Assembly by KYB®. Restore your vehicle's original performance for normal driving conditions with the Excel-G twin-tube gas hydraulic shocks and struts that offer additional damping force...
      Designed to restore original handling and controlCalibrated to compensate for age and miles driven
      # 17814800
    • Lemfoerder®Strut Mount
      $79.78$63.82
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Strut Mount by Lemfoerder®. Position: Front Upper. Front - Upper. Does your luxury car ride like an old buckboard wagon? Is your pickup still bouncing long after the bump? If so your suspension is in need of repair,...
      # 8511064
    • MOOG®Front Strut Mount
      $43.31$34.65
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Front Strut Mount by MOOG®. Includes Bearing. Replace worn strut mounts whenever you replace struts with superior quality MOOG parts providing a high-strength pivot point and a solid anchor for attaching the strut...
      Eliminates noise, vibration, and steering problems associated with worn strut mountsImproves ride and handling
      # 21648668
    • MOOG®Shock / Strut Bellow
      $22.03from $17.62
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Shock / Strut Bellow by MOOG®. Upgrade your vehicle to MOOG and experience a safe and comfortable ride. The parts are made tough to ensure reliable operation even under extreme conditions. Thanks to the advanced...
      Designed to make steering and suspension repairs easyDirect fit
      # 21705597
    • MOOG®Rear Upper Shock Mount
      $22.40from $17.92
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Rear Upper Shock Mount by MOOG®. Is there excessive play in your steering wheel? Does your vehicle drift or pull, or veer when it hits a bump? Is your power steering noisy and does it leak? Your steering system is...
      # 21705601
    • Professional Parts Sweden®Strut Mount
      $52.08$41.66
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Strut Mount by Professional Parts Sweden®. Position: Front Upper. Does your luxury car ride like an old buckboard wagon? Is your pickup still bouncing long after the bump? If so your suspension is in need of repair,...
      # 7689320
    • Professional Parts Sweden®Shock Bushing
      $5.84from $4.67
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Shock Bushing by Professional Parts Sweden®. Position: Upper. Does your luxury car ride like an old buckboard wagon? Is your pickup still bouncing long after the bump? If so your suspension is in need of repair, but...
      # 7706582
    • Rein®Front Shock Bumper
      $10.79$8.63
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Front Shock Bumper by Rein®. Used 2 per Car. Your vehicle's suspension system carries weight, absorbs and dampens shock, and helps maintain tire contact, so servicing this system properly is essential. When it comes...
      Direct replacement for a proper fit every timeMeets OE standards and specifications
      # 24635084
    • Scan-Tech®Strut Mount
      $46.30$37.04
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Strut Mount by Scan-Tech®. NLA 1/12. Position: Rear Upper. Note: without Nivomat = Self-Leveling Suspension. Does your luxury car ride like an old buckboard wagon? Is your pickup still bouncing long after the bump?...
      # 7903114
    • Scan-Tech®Shock Bushing
      $12.26$9.81
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Shock Bushing by Scan-Tech®. NLA 1/12. Position: Upper. Does your luxury car ride like an old buckboard wagon? Is your pickup still bouncing long after the bump? If so your suspension is in need of repair, but...
      # 7918162
    • SKF®Strut Bearing
      $25.54$20.43
      (0)
      Volvo S40 2003, Strut Bearing by SKF®. Position: Front. Does your luxury car ride like an old buckboard wagon? Is your pickup still bouncing long after the bump? If so your suspension is in need of repair, but before you waste your...
      # 8761684



    Guides & Articles
    Very often we don't even realize what a crucial role a car's suspension plays in providing a safe and comfortable ride. The system maximizes the friction between the road surface and your vehicle's tires, ensuring steering stability along with responsive handling.
    Shock absorbers, also known simply as “shocks” (which is what we will call them for the rest of this article), are the suspension components which stop your car or truck from bouncing up and down after hitting a bump. They are a major contributor to your ride comfort and safety.
    The very first thing to know about timely suspension system diagnosis is that the stability and steering control of your vehicle and, what is more important, your safety on the road depends on how often you make it. Automotive suspension belongs to one of those car systems that are constantly exposed to high loads and thus are prone to wear and tear. Most...